Legal Tools

Legal tools are another area that most utilities are using to promote water conservation (see Figure 10). Not surprisingly, by-laws are the most common tool used, with nearly 2 in 3 of those surveyed reporting their use. Mandatory restrictions are also commonly used, as nearly half of utilities employ these. Other popular legal tools include regulations and standards. Less commonly used tools include licensing (23%), zoning restrictions(21%) and restrictive covenants (12%), although nearly 1 in 4 utilities surveyed are considering the use of zoning restrictions (23%).